Shatkhira is a district in the south-western part of Bangladesh under the jurisdiction of Khulna division. The district lies in between 21°36′ and 22°54′ north latitudes and in between 88°54′ and 89°20′ east longitudes. Shatkhira is bounded by Jessore district on the north, the Bay of Bengal on the south, Khulna district on the east, West Bengal of India on the west. Satkhira Sub-division was established in 1861 under Jessore district. It was included into Khulna district in 1882. The sub-division was finally turned into a separate district on 3rd February, 1984 as a result of the administrative decentralization. Shatkhira has an area of 3,858.33 sq. km of which 1632.00 sq. km. is under forest. It consists of 7 Upazilas, 2 Municipalities and 78 Union Parishads. According to the 2011 Bangladesh Census, Shatkhira district has a population of 2,079,884. Males constitute 49.49% of the population and females 50.51%. Density of the population is 540 inhabitants/km2.
There is a popular belief that Bishu Ram, a Dewan of the Moharaja Krishna Chandra of Nadia (now in India) rehabilitated seven aristocrat Brahmins in seven (meaning “Sat” in Bangla) separate houses (meaning “Ghar” in Bangla), in consequence of which the area took its name as “Satgharia”. Subsequently, it was renamed as Satkhira when the British administration upgraded it to a sub-division in 1861. The Human Development Index (HDI) of Shatkhira is 0.620 which is 6th among all districts of Bangladesh. It indicates moderate life expectancy, literacy Rate and per capita income of the inhabitants. The district has a literacy rate of 53.32% for the population 7 years and above. Shatkhira is situated on the bank of the river Arpangachhia. Morichap, Kholpetua, Betna, Raimangal, Hariabhanga, Ichamati, Betrabati and Kalindi-Jamuna are the main rivers that flow through the district. The average high temperature is 35.5.°C and the average low temperature is 12.5°C. Annual rainfall averages 1710 millimetres.
Numerous daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly and literary newspapers and magazines are published from Shatkhira. First Offset Printing Press was “Zahan Offset Printing Press” and the first local daily newspaper published from Shatkhira was “Dainik Satkhira Chitra”. Dainik Kafela, Dainik Drishtipat and Dainik Juger Barta are notable among them. Notable folk culture of the district include Jarigan, Punthi path, Rath Mela, boat race, horse race, etc. Palanquin, horse carriage, bullock cart, buffalo cart and country boat were the traditional transports found in the rural area of Satkhira previously. However, these means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct except country boat now. Now-a-days, all the upazilas are connected to the district headquarters by metalled roads. Bus, minibus, three wheelers ply over the district.
The economy of Shatkhira is predominantly agricultural. Its economy is also dependent on the pisciculture and Bhomra land port. Main sources of income includes agriculture with 62.56%, non-agricultural laborer 4.33%, industry 1.51%, commerce 16.23%, transport and communication 3.03%, service 4.86%, construction 1.01%, religious service 0.19%, rent and remittance 0.34% and others 5.94%. Among the crops found in Satkhira district, paddy, jute, sugarcane, mustard seed, potato, wheat, pulses, vegetables, onion and betel leaf are notable. Available main fruits are mango, blackberry, jackfruit, banana, papaya, litchi, coconut and guava.
Most of the peoples of southern part of Satkhira depend on pisciculture. There are 86 dairy farms, 322 poultry farms, 3046 fisheries, 3650 prawn farms, 66 hatcheries and one cattle breeding centre in Shatkhira. There is an India-Bangladesh land port named Bhomra port near Shatkhira. It is the second largest land port in Bangladesh. The Bhomra land customs station was inaugurated in 1996. The main export items are prawn, paddy, jute, betel leaf, wheat, leather and jute goods. Exportation done in Shatkhira contribute about 18.5% of economy of Bangladesh. Recently, the wide spread crab fattening is also contributing heavily in Satkhira’s economy.
Satkhira City consists of Satkhira Municipality with 9 wards and 33 mahallas. It occupies an area of 32.39 sq. km. Satkhira Municipality was established in 1869. It was reconstituted as Satkhira Town Committee in accordance with the provisions of Basic Democracies Order, 1959. Satkhira Town Committee was replaced by Satkhira Shahar Committee according to the Bangladesh Local Councils and Municipal Committees Order of 1972. Satkhira Shahar Committee was replaced by Satkhira Municipality in accordance with the previous of the Paurashava Ordinance, 1977.
Satkhira region was a part of ancient Banga. Once it was the capital of the state of Baro Bhuiyans of Bengal. Peasant movement against the East India Company and oppressions of the local rulers spread over the district in 1801 under the leadership of Titumir. Besides, Indigo Movement and Wahabi Movement also spread over the zila during 1854-60.
The Swadhin Bangla Chhatra Sangram Parishad organised initial resistance to the Pakistani army on 26 March, 1971. Satkhira is witness to uncountable battles during the nine months of Liberation War. There are 2 mass graves in Debhata and Kalaroa Bazar in Shyamnagar upazila. There are 6 mass killing sites near Satkhira Government Boys’ High School, homestead of Dinesh Karmakar, the adjacent pond on the backside of the Satkhira Government School, area adjacent to Binerpota Bridge, Bankal and Gangni Bridge areas, Mahmudpur High School, Harinagar and Kathkhali of Shyamnagar. The 5 memorial monuments are established at Baliadanga, Kalaroa, Gopalpur, Harinagar of Shyamnagar and Satkhira sadar. There is also a memorial plate at Murarikati of Kalaroa.
Some young people started computer training center as a business in 1994. They prepared some talents who later started other computer-based business and ultimately created the platform for digital Shatkhira. Slowly, computer started to replace manual type machines in the office, bank and other institutions. Schools and Colleges started recruiting Computer teachers to educate new generations. Computer Association of Satkhira was established with 30 members in 1999. This Association regularly organizes Computer Fairs in various locations for ICT awareness. Some of the computer fairs were supported by Bangladesh Computer Samity with the presence of current ICT minister, Mustafa Jabbar.
The district is predominately Muslims with 81.86% of the population, Hindus 17.70%, Christians 0.31% and other 0.12% practicing other religions. Among the archaeological heritages and relics, Dargah of Mai Champa, Jahajghata Naval Fort, Nabaratna Mandir, Dighi and clay walled Moneyghar of Tittar Raja, Baro Duary, Tenga Mosque, Sonabaria Nabaratna Mandir, Joseshwari Mandir, Triangular Mandir of Chanda Bhairabi, Nagar Fort of Raja Pratapaditya, Parabajpur Mosque, Hammam Khana, Gopalpur Mandir, Moutala Mosque, Annapunna Nabaratna Mandir, Sultanpur Shahi Mosque, Nagarghata Mosque, Katunia Mandir are notable. Attractions also include the mangrove forest at Kaligonj Upazila. This forest, named Basjharia Joarar Ban, is popularly known as the forest of Badha. There are also 1445.38 sq. km of Sundarbans in Satkhira district.
|At a glance of Satkhira|
|01||Area||3,858.33 sq. km|
|04||Literacy Rate||53.32 %|
|05||Seats in the Parliament||4|
|07||Sector in Liberation War||8 & 9|
- Satkhira Sadar
Arpangachhia, Morichap, Kholpetua, Betna, Raimangal, Hariabhanga, Ichamati, Betrabati and Kalindi-Jamuna
Dainik Satkhira Chitra, Dainik Kafela, Dainik Drishtipat and Dainik Juger Barta
- Sundarbans (1445.38 km)
- Dargah of Mai Champa
- Jahajghata Naval Fort
- Nabaratna Mandir
- Dighi and clay walled Moneyghar of Tittar Raja
- Baro Duary
- Tenga Mosque
- Sonabaria Nabaratna Mandir
- Joseshwari Mandir
- Hammam Khana
- Triangular Mandir of Chanda Bhairabi
- Nagar Fort of Raja Pratapaditya
- Parabajpur Mosque
- Gopalpur Mandir
- Moutala Mosque
- Annapunna Nabaratna Mandir
- Sultanpur Shahi Mosque
- Nagarghata Mosque
- Katunia Mandir
- Forest of Badha
- Prannath Roy Chowdhury
- Raja Haricharan Roy Chowdhury
- Raja Jatindra Mohan Roy
- Bidhan Chandra Roy
- Sikandar Abu Zafar
- M. R. Khan
- Pachadbi Gazi
- Khan Bahadur Ahsanullah
- Soumya Sarkar
- Nilufar Yasmin
- Sabina Yasmin
- Moushumi Hamid
- Falguni Hamid
- Tariq Anam Khan
- Afzal Hossain
- Rani Sarkar
- Muhammad Wazed Ali
Written & Edited by Sadia Siddika Zitu