Dhaka district, the magical district, the central hub of the Whole country Bangladesh, is a district on the eastern bank of Buriganga with a population of 12,043,977 and 1,497.17 square kilometers area that possesses an incredibly phenomenal and spectral power of determining the fate of its inhabitants and of whoever enters or leaves the district. (city)
Dhaka district (officially) was settled in 1772. Although Dhaka, the capital district of Bangladesh, used to have and attained a little prestigious status in the pre-Mughal period, the city reached the zenith of glory in history during the Mughal period.
Dhaka district geographically is positioned at 23°53′ and 24°06′ north latitudes and in between 90°01′ and 90°37′ east longitudes and ringed by Gazipur and Tangail districts on North, on the south by Munshiganj district, Narayanganj on the west and hedged by Manikganj and Rajbari on the west.
No remarkable information or resources were discovered corresponding to the initiation of the name “Dhaka” to defy and represent the particularly concerned territory. Some of the prevailing views on this are as follows:
· At one time, there were many dhak trees (buti fudosa) in this region.
· Following the instruction of Islam Khan (“Dhak” is one of the Bengali alternatives for drum), drums were played on the area’s inauguration day. (Dhaka).
· A Prakrit language called ‘Dhakavasha’ was prevalent (existent) here in this region.
· In Rajatarangini, Dhaka is referred to as an ‘observation center,’ According to the shreds of evidence found in Allahabad inscription, the eastern state of king Samudragupta, Dabak, is the Dhaka at present.
· As pre-Mughal period remarks, important archaeological sites like different mosques with the traditional design still exist in the district. There are two mosques in Dhaka, and one in Mirpur, and these are the only witnesses left of the pre-Mughal period. The earliest of these dates back to 1456 AD (Joao de Barros sees Dhaka as an indispensable and essential place and indicates its location on a map drawn by him in 1550 AD).
Dhaka is mentioned in Akbar Nama as a thana ( police outpost), and in Ain-e-Akbari, the author represented Dhaka as a pargana (significant state territory) of King Sarkar Bajuhar.In 1610, Islam Khan Chishti Subah moved Bengal’s capital from Rajmahal to Dhaka and renamed Jahangirnagar after the emperor.
In fact, the name Jahangirnagar was selected administratively and consequently renamed. However, the term “Dhaka” had a unique fragrance in the common people’s brain, and the name never ceased to exist. All foreign tourists and officials of foreign companies also used to use the name Dhaka in their descriptions and letters everywhere.
Major rivers of Dhaka district include Buriganga, Dholeshwari, Bongshi, Turag, and Balunodi.
The district has been doing exceedingly well with 6 Upazila and 41 thanas, 86 unions, 974 mauzas, 1999 villages, 2 city corporations, 92 city wards, 855 city mahallas, three municipalities, 27 wards, and 133 mahallas.
Dhaka is intuitively related to the politics of the post-1947 political history. Among them, the Language Movement in 1952, the Six-point Programme of 1966, the Mass upheaval of 1969, Unesco recognized historic speech of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on 7 March 1971, signing the document of surrender of the Pak Army on 16 December 1971, etc. are notable.
Dhaka was under sector 2 in the liberation war period. Dhaka put a significant effort in accelerating the surrender of Pakistani troops and improving war-torn Bangladesh after the independence.
During the War of Liberation, the Pak army operated mass killings and plundering in Dhaka. Once indigo was being cultivated centering around Joypara of Dohar Upazila of this district. During the 1920s, the people of Dhaka were enormously influenced by the Non-Cooperation Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. Avaya Ashram was constructed at Dohar in 1922-23, maintaining the ideals of Gandhi. In 1940, all India Convention of Gandhi Seva Sangha took place at village Malikandha of Dohar Upazila. And, On this occasion, Gandhi paid a visit here and ran different activities, spending two days.
According to District statistics 2011, the district possesses (maintained) a literacy rate of 70.1%.
In the pre-Muslim period, the present Dhaka district was incorporated in an administrative region renowned as ‘Banga.’
Some portion of it was known as samatata, and in years of changes, some knew the region in the name “Harikel.” At the beginning of the eleventh century, Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji introduced the Muslim reign in Bengal by wiping the Sena dynasty out of the region. Before the settlement of the Mughal dynasty, many Hindu and Muslim rulers of Bengal previously established their capitals at various locations around Dhaka. Some traces of these capital cities can still be discovered in areas like Bikrampur, Bhawal, and Sonargaon.
Although the Mughals snatched the power of Bengal territory from the Pathan Sultan in 1585, they had to gain enough momentum to have possession and possess control over the landlords or Bhuiyans of Bengal.
After its establishment as the provincial capital in 1610 AD, Dhaka’s status remained intact for a hundred years.
Almost all the erstwhile central administrative headquarters, regardless of the ruler, used to be operated in the district town and, to be specific, the subadar and other employees’ residences. Almost everybody lived there.
For personal and political reasons, Prince Shuja (1839-59) permuted the capital.
When the Subahdari was transferred, Dhaka lost its essentiality as capital and appeared futile as the central hub and turned into a local administrative center. Later, Subahdar Shah Shuja started construction work (infrastructural development) in Dhaka.
Mir Abul Qasim, the Diwan (high official) of Shah Suja, built a spacious fort building renowned Bara gate in 1645 AD. The building is located on the bank of the Buriganga and to the south of the present Chawkbazar. The gate is located on Mymensingh Road near Curzon Hall and west of the old High Court building. Subadar Shaista Khan was a famous builder, undoubtedly. Of course, he is the one behind the katras as well. It is known as Chhota Katra, the name given to Shah Suja to distinguish it from the big Katra. He also built several mosques and mausoleums. Among the mosques, Chawkbazar Mosque, Babubazar Mosque, and Shat Gambuj Mosque are famous. The most notable of the tombs is the tomb of Bibi Pari. Due to its location along the river, Dhaka was a local trade center in the pre-Mughal period.
Because Dhaka was a manufacturing center, the cotton fabric produced here was of high quality, and there was a lot of demand for it abroad. Different types of cotton cloth, known as muslin, were exported. European companies imported large quantities of gold and silver for these purchases. The decline of the political power of the Nawabs of Bengal and the rise of the East India Company dimmed the administrative importance of Dhaka in the late eighteenth century. Besides, the East India Company’s commercial and manufacturing policies destroyed the city’s financial base. The 1840s ushered in a new chapter in urban history, with recent developments and the beginning of a new era of prosperity. This journey of urban development has been going on continuously since then.
Administrative Progress Dhaka was previously the center of district administration. It became the headquarters of a large division called the Dhaka Division in 1829. After that, the organizational importance of Dhaka ameliorated, and by 175, the city of Dhaka was established as the largest civilian center in the province of Bengal after Calcutta. The administrative importance of Dhaka increased drastically in 1905-11 when it was made the capital of a new province called East Bengal and Assam. A Lieutenant Governor with a High Court and a Secretariat was appointed. After the end of British colonial rule in 1947 and the establishment of Pakistan’s independent state, Dhaka became the capital of a new province called East Bengal. From that time, Pakistan’s Dhaka was not only the administrative headquarters of the new province but also the seat of the Legislative Assembly and the National Assembly. After many months of struggle, sacrifice, and bloodshed, Bangladesh achieved its final victory on 16 December 1971 through nine months of the armed liberation war. As the capital of an independent sovereign state, Dhaka is regarded as one of the most important centers of political, administrative, and economic, social, educational, and cultural activities.
The language of the Dhaka district generally originated from the eastern Bengal portion. Because although the language of this region is the Mughal Bengali language. However, the tone of the conversation is slightly different. The different patterns have led to a difference in the local languages, such as using e-letters with other words. Yet this local language is an excellent example of the diversity corresponding to the Bengal community’s regional languages, which is also imitating and evolving. After the modern form of the Bengali language has emerged, many writers and laureates of the Dhaka district enriched the Bengali language through their literary work, such as the contribution of Harish Chandra Mitra, Deenbandi Mitra, etc. are remarkable.
In the present day, the practice of the best quality of literature in the Bengali language in the Dhaka district has become comparatively permanent comparing to the sadhu format used in the past.
It is especially noteworthy that many people from Dhaka city use a mixed language consisting of Bengali, Urdu, Hindi, Persian, or other dialects. However, the practice of this language is slowly up to decreasing (see Dhaka dialect iced proverbs, Asiatic Society, April 2012)
The culture of Dhaka has evolved from the present to the present and has become a color. The weather, climate, space of the Dhaka region have influenced the culture as a catalyst being beneath the surface, the language of the people, the dress, the culture, literature, etc. as well. Dhaka district culture is a part of Bangladesh’s culture, but it has its distinctive features such as food, clothes, music, folk music, art, sports, architecture, handicrafts, and other creative work. But for sure, this culture is liberal, non-communicative, and unique in its own right.
People from Dhaka district who at least managed to put a remarkably incredible and splendidly positive impact upon the welfare of the community, society, and the country as well are as followed:
Nawab Abdul Gani, Nawab (ruler) Khaja Ahsan Ullah, Khaja Salimullah, Nawab Khaja Habibullah Bahar, One of the legends of Bengali Poetry Shamsur Rahman, the pop legend Azom Khan, Abdur Rahaman Boyati and many more!
Currently, Dhaka and every land route in Bangladesh are interlinked. Dhaka is connected to every community with railway availability through rail as well. Besides, there exists a global connection to the city (district) of Dhaka. The Shahlahal International Airport is the leading international airport in Bangladesh, located in Tongi, near Dhaka. The airport is regularly operated by domestic and international routes.
In fact, the extensive communication system of Dhaka District, especially the Dhaka Municipality, along with the river path, land routes, and railway tracks, has ensured business and economic prosperity in the Dhaka district as well as Dhaka municipality.
Dhaka district possesses a thousand amazing places to visit or places with a unique vibe and significance. But the most amazing places and architectural beauties with the strong historical background are mentioned and described below.
Choto Katra: Choto Katra is an architectural beauty constructed in the term of Subadar Shaista khan. The infrastructural development of the building presumably underwent in between 1663 and 1671. Right now, no relics and rubble left based on which someone could have started a discussion except a broken gate. And the surrounding shops seem to swallow it and taking it into an infrastructural stomach, and anybody would struggle to find any sign of this astounding Mughal era beauty.
The grave of Bibi Champa was in Choto Katra. Nothing is still found corresponding to the identity of who she was! Sadly, No clue yet, but some experts believe that She was the daughter of Shaista Khan.
Lalkuti / Northbruke hall: This hall building was built, keeping the sole purpose of organizing different events, programs, and conferences in mind at around the ’80s of the nineteenth century, and the red colored magnificent building is in Farashganj near Banglabazar.
A beautiful star-shaped fountain was built between the two entrances of this Northbrook Hall/Redkuthi to honor the memory of the martyrs of Ward 79 in the great war of independence in 1971.
A Rabindra memorial has been set up in front of the main gate of Lalkuti. Rabindranath Tagore was invited to Dhaka University and several local organizations to elucidate upon the standard of the Dhaka municipality and people’s association in Lalkuthi in Dhaka city. In response, the poet expressed his views on the patriotic communal harmony of world peace.
Lalbagh Fort is the only historic landmark of the Mughal era in Bangladesh with harmonized ingredients. The only historical landmark was built with a combination of hard stones, marble stones, and various colored taels. No other historical landmark in Bangladesh except Lalbagh Fort is a combination of all these materials till today. So, no further explanation is needed to state why it is a special one, indeed. This fort formerly was known as the Aurangabad Kella (the fortress of Aurangabad). But the fort is in the Lalbagh area. So, those people who conceptualized previously that the name of the fort changed(evolved) because of the area name, their conception is not wrong at all.
The construction of Lalbagh Fort began in 1678. There are three structures in the fort square:
1. The hall and the hammam in the center
2. The Tomb of The Paribibi.
3. Shahi Mosque in North West.
Gurudwara Nanaksahi: Guruduara Nanksahi in Dhaka is a Sikh religious temple located close to the institute of modern languages of the University of Dhaka. This is the Largest shikh temple of Bangladesh. It is said that Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion in the 16th century, stayed for a short time at the place where the Gurudwara is located at present. While in this place, he preached the monotheism and brotherhood of Sikh religion and taught the religious practice.
Ahsan Manjil: Ahsan Manzil is located on the banks of the Buriganga River in Old Dhaka, known as Kumartuli in Islampur. It was the residence and headquarters of the Nawab family in Dhaka, the capital of British India. This building is one of the best architectural landmarks in Dhaka.
Dhaka district is blessed with at least a hundred more places with historical significance like Bara Katra, Ruplal House, Hossaini Building, Khan Mohammad Merdha Mosque, Jinjira Palace, Tara Masjid Of Armanitola, Seven dome mosque, Musa Khan mosque, Armenian church, and many more!
Hail Dhaka district! Hail the district of magic!
|At a glance of Dhaka|
(565.1 sq mi)
There is no Upazilas in Dhaka city. There are 5 upazilas which are located in rural and suburban areas of Dhaka District
- Dhamrai Upazila
- Dohar Upazila
- Keraniganj Upazila
- Nawabganj Upazila
- Savar Upazila
- Demra Upazila
- Adabar Thana
- Badda Thana
- Bangsal Thana
- Bimanbandar Thana (Dhaka)
- Cantonment Thana
- Chowkbazar Thana
- Darus Salam Thana
- Demra Thana
- Dhanmondi Thana
- Gendaria Thana
- Gulshan Thana
- Hazaribagh Thana
- Kadamtali Thana
- Kafrul Thana
- Kamrangirchar Thana
- Khilgaon Thana
- Khilkhet Thana
- Kotwali Thana (Dhaka)
- Lalbagh Thana
- Mirpur Model Thana
- Mohammadpur Thana
- Motijheel Thana
- New Market Thana
- Pallabi Thana
- Ramna Thana
- Rampura Thana
- Sabujbagh Thana
- Shah Ali Thana
- Sher-e-Bangla Nagar
- Shyampur Thana
- Sutrapur Thana
- Tejgaon Industrial Area Thana
- Tejgaon Thana
- Turag Thana
- Uttar Khan Thana
- Uttara Thana
- Vatara Thana
- Wari Thana
- Lalbagh Fort
- Ahsan Manzil Palace Museum
- National Martyrs’ Memorial(Jatiyo Smriti Soudho)
- Star Mosque (Tara Mosjid)
- National Museum
- National Parliament House(Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban)
- Bara Katra
- National Botanical Garden
- Hatir Jhil
- Bangladesh National Zoo
Written by Niaz Mahmud Sakib.